History of Beer

Beer Quality Characteristics

Usefulness of beer


History of Beer

Beer is light alcoholic drink, which has a history of over 5000 years. The oldest notice about beer was found in a Sumerian cuneiform dated back to 2800 B.C., where was described workers’ everyday ration consisting of bread and beer. Hammurabi, a Babylonian King (1728-1686 B.C.), decreed the oldest known collection of laws regulating the production and sales of draught beer. The inscriptions were describing also the possible violations in this field.
The Egyptians carried on the tradition of beer brewing, proven by numerous pictures and archeological excavations.
In Europe lovers of beer were old Germans, as well as Scyths and Celts.
Already from the middle of the 14th century the Christian abbeys started brewing beer as means of financing their communities. Scant harvest or unfavorable conditions sometimes forced to use other products instead of typical ones. Hop sometimes was substituted by bitter herbs, instead of barley wheat was mixed or cheaper oat was processed. Some substituting herbs were dangerous for human health, so to avoid undesirable consequences an administrative law was decreed, which stated that for beer production as ingredients can be used only water, hops and malt.
The first reference about this is documented in the article 12 of “«Statuta thaberna» Law of Vansenze city of Thuringia adopted in 434. Similar requirements for beer production were accepted also in Munich in 1447. On April 23 1516 in the Ingolstadt Landtagum, Bavaria (the regional electoral body of bourgeois Germany) Wilhelm IV and Ludwig X signed the Beer Purity rule. Thus the requirements to beer became a law.
Since 1906 in Germany the “Purity Law” has power of law for all local producers of beer. According to this law beer should be brewed from barley malt, hop and water. It can be said that the Purity Law was the first one in the world protecting consumers’ rights.


Beer Quality Characteristics

The main quality characteristics of beer are the scent and flavor, color and clarity, foaminess and foam retention.
The beer flavor mainly depends on:
• Beer yeast and fermentation by-products
• Type and quantity of hop,
• Organic sulphurous compounds.
The integrity of taste is determined mainly by super activeness of wort: higher it is, fuller is the taste. The fullness of taste depends of alcohol, residual sugar, oligosaccharides, high-protein cleavage products, bitter and astringent compounds of hops, esters, amino acids and other substances.
The refreshing feature of beer is conditioned by the content of carbon dioxide in it, which should be granular and linked. This ensures the slow release of gas and the sparkling.

Beer Bitterness

Beer bitterness, first of all, is ensured by hop. The best types of hop give pleasant bitterness and delicate flavor to it.

Color and Clarity of Beer

Beer color distinguishes different types of beer, from light to dark. High quality light beer should have full transparency and should twinkle. High gloss speaks of product purity and perfection.

Foaminess and Foam Retention

The bubbles of carbon dioxide create foam in the glass of beer. The steady, thick and lofty foam is a sign of good quality beer. The foam 4 cm high should stay for 3-4 minutes. Good foam leaves a trace on the glass walls which the beer-makers and beer fans call "Brussels lace". Beer with thick and dense foam has a fullness of taste and long lasting freshness.

Beer Testing

To ensure that the bitterness of beer is natural and not artificial, it is enough to add to it some vinegar. In the beer embittered by hop residue appears immediately. The vinegar should be added until precipitate stops forming. Then this liquid is tested. If it still tastes bitter, then it means that it is made without hop and the bitterness is obtained with the help of other substances, which can be even harmful for human health.
Source: sekreti.nm.ru

Usefulness of beer

Since ancient times mankind has used the useful features of beer. From middle ages to present days it is widely used in cosmetology. Beer masks rejuvenate and refresh the skin. Despite its low calories (the value of calories in beer are even lower than that of Coca-Cola, various fruit juices and milk), beer has great nutritional and physiological significance. Beer quenches thirst better than any other beverage. It also stimulates the gastro-intestinal tract due to contained alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Beer has strong diuretic properties. This is due to components of hop and potassium salts. This feature of beer sometimes urologists use for "washing" kidneys or removal of stones.
In the case of moderate consumption of beer, we don’t gain weight.
Beer has soporific effect. In small quantities it has a calming effect, relieving nervous tension.
Unpasteurized (cold) beer contains various vitamins – first of all, vitamins B and PP (nicotinic acid). Especially useful for health is unfiltered (Draught) beer, rich in ferments and micronutrients.

Below we present quantitative indicators of several important trace elements contained in 1 liter of beer:

NAME QUANTITY NAME QUANTITY
Carbohydrates   
30-40 g Vitamin H (biotin) 0,005 mg
Proteins 3-5 g
Vitamin PP (nicotinic acid) 6-9 mg
Alcohol 35-43 g
Folic acid 0,04-0,8 mg
Carbon dioxide 4-5 g
Pantothenic acid 0,9-1,5 mg
Water 840-900 g
Potassium 420-570 mg
Vitamin B1 (thiamin) 0,03-0,04 mg
Phosphorus 0,12-0,32 mg
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) 0,3-0,4 mg
Sulfur
0,1-0,2 g

 

At the end remains to note that abuse of beer can lead to alcoholism

 

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